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Complications and Risks Associated with Wisdom Teeth Extraction


Wisdom teeth, known as third molars, typically emerge in late adolescence or early adulthood. While these teeth can sometimes cause discomfort and dental issues, their extraction is not without complications and risks. This comprehensive article will explore the various aspects of wisdom teeth extraction, including the potential complications, associated risks, and frequently asked questions. We will also discuss the importance of proper aftercare following the extraction procedure to ensure a smooth recovery. Additionally, we will delve into alternative treatment options that may be considered when wisdom teeth extraction is unnecessary.

Understanding Wisdom Teeth Extraction

Wisdom teeth extraction is a standard dental procedure to remove the third molars, which often do not have enough space to grow properly in the mouth. Oral surgeons or dentists carry out this procedure, typically under local or general anesthesia. The oral surgeon or dentist will carefully remove the wisdom teeth from the jawbone and gums during the extraction. This procedure is necessary to prevent potential complications such as impaction, infection, and damage to surrounding teeth.

The Importance of Wisdom Teeth Extraction

Wisdom teeth can pose several oral health problems if left untreated. Some of the critical reasons for their extraction include:


Wisdom teeth often do not have enough space to erupt properly, causing them to become impacted. This can lead to pain, infection, and damage to surrounding teeth. Additionally, impacted wisdom teeth can cause crowding and misaligning of other teeth in the mouth. Sometimes, they may develop cysts or tumors, increasing the risk of complications. Therefore, extracting wisdom teeth is crucial to maintain oral health and prevent potential long-term issues.


The emergence of wisdom teeth can cause overcrowding in the mouth, leading to misalignment of existing teeth. This misalignment can result in difficulty maintaining proper oral hygiene, as cleaning between crowded teeth becomes challenging. Additionally, overcrowding can increase the risk of tooth decay and gum disease due to the accumulation of plaque and bacteria in hard-to-reach areas. Therefore, extracting impacted wisdom teeth can help alleviate crowding and maintain a healthy and properly aligned smile.


Impacted wisdom teeth can create pockets where bacteria accumulate, leading to pericoronitis. Pericoronitis is an inflammation of the gum tissue surrounding the affected tooth, causing pain, swelling, and difficulty opening the mouth. The infection can spread to other mouth and throat areas if left untreated. Therefore, removing impacted wisdom teeth can prevent such diseases and promote oral health.

Cysts and Tumors:

Cysts or tumors may sometimes form around impacted wisdom teeth, necessitating their removal. These growths can cause damage to the surrounding teeth and jawbone if left untreated. Additionally, they can lead to more severe complications such as infection or even the development of oral cancer. Therefore, it is crucial to remove impacted wisdom teeth to prevent the formation and progression of cysts and tumors.

There are usually four wisdom teeth in each jaw. They don’t always break through the gums and grow out, though: In about 80 out of 100 young adults, at least one wisdom tooth stays inside the jaw.


Complications of Wisdom Teeth Extraction

While wisdom teeth extraction is a routine procedure, it has potential complications. Understanding these complications is essential for anyone considering the removal of their wisdom teeth.

1. Infection

Infection is a common complication following wisdom teeth extraction. The surgical site may become infected, causing pain, swelling, and discomfort. In some cases, the infection may spread to surrounding areas, leading to more severe complications such as abscess formation or difficulty opening the mouth. Prompt antibiotic treatment and proper oral hygiene can help prevent and manage infections after wisdom teeth extraction. Dentists often prescribe antibiotics to prevent or treat such infections.

2. Dry Socket

A dry socket occurs when the blood clot that forms after extraction dislodges or dissolves prematurely. This condition can be excruciating and may require additional treatment and medication. Patients should avoid smoking, drinking through a straw, or eating hard or sticky foods for a few days after the extraction to prevent dry sockets. Additionally, dentists may place a medicated dressing in the socket to promote healing and alleviate pain.

3. Nerve Damage

In some cases, the nerves in the jaw can be damaged during the extraction process. This can result in temporary or, in rare cases, permanent numbness or tingling in the lower lip, tongue, or chin. Nerve damage during tooth extraction is rare, but patients must know the potential risks. Dentists take precautions to minimize the chances of nerve damage, such as carefully assessing the tooth’s position and using specialized techniques. However, if nerve damage does occur, it is usually temporary and resolves on its own over time.

4. Sinus Issues

Wisdom teeth located in the upper jaw are close to the sinuses. Their removal can sometimes lead to sinus problems, including sinusitis or perforation. Sinus problems may occur if the sinus cavity is accidentally damaged during extraction. However, proper post-operative care and medication can effectively manage these rare issues.

5. Swelling and Bruising

It is expected to experience swelling and bruising after the procedure. This typically resolves within a few days but can be uncomfortable. Applying ice packs to the affected area can help reduce swelling and alleviate discomfort. Additionally, over-the-counter pain medications can be taken as directed to manage any pain or soreness experienced during the healing process.

6. Bleeding

Post-operative bleeding is normal, but excessive bleeding may require medical attention. Patients are advised to follow post-operative care instructions carefully to minimize this risk. It is important to avoid activities that may increase blood flow to the surgical site, such as strenuous exercise or lifting heavy objects. If excessive bleeding occurs, it is recommended to contact the surgeon or seek immediate medical attention.

7. Allergic Reactions

Although rare, some individuals may experience allergic reactions to anesthesia or medications administered during the procedure. These reactions can range from mild symptoms such as itching or rash to more severe reactions like difficulty breathing or swelling. Patients must inform their healthcare provider about known allergies before surgery to minimize the risk of an allergic reaction.

Risks Associated with Wisdom Teeth Extraction

In addition to the potential complications, certain inherent risks are associated with wisdom teeth extraction. Before the procedure, these risks should be discussed with your oral surgeon or dentist.

1. Anesthesia Risks

If the procedure is done under general anesthesia, there are inherent risks associated with anesthesia, including allergic reactions and complications related to anesthesia administration. These risks can vary depending on the individual’s medical history and overall health. To minimize the potential risks, you must inform your oral surgeon or dentist about allergies or previous reactions to anesthesia. Additionally, they will be able to provide you with detailed information about the specific anesthesia used and any precautions that need to be taken.

2. Post-operative Pain

Most patients experience some degree of post-operative pain and discomfort. Following the prescribed pain management regimen, inform your healthcare provider if the pain persists. They may need to adjust your pain medication or provide alternative pain relief methods. It’s essential to communicate any changes in your pain levels or concerns about the effectiveness of the prescribed medication to ensure proper post-operative care.

3. Surgical Complexity

The complexity of the extraction can vary depending on the position and condition of the wisdom teeth. More complex extractions may have a higher risk of complications. Discussing the surgical complexity with your oral surgeon before the procedure is crucial. They will be able to evaluate the potential risks and complications associated with your specific case and provide you with appropriate guidance and recommendations. Also, diligently following post-operative instructions can help minimize possible difficulties and ensure a smooth recovery.

4. Age and Health Factors

The age and overall health of the patient can influence the risks associated with wisdom teeth extraction. Older individuals may have a higher risk of complications. This is because as we age, our bones become denser, and the roots of the wisdom teeth may be more firmly embedded, making extraction more challenging. Additionally, individuals with underlying health conditions such as diabetes or immune disorders may have a higher risk of infection or delayed healing after the procedure.

5. Infection Risk

Infection is a risk both during and after the procedure. Proper oral hygiene and adherence to post-operative care instructions can help mitigate this risk. Following the dentist’s instructions for cleaning the extraction site and taking any prescribed antibiotics is essential to prevent infection. Maintaining a healthy immune system through proper nutrition and managing underlying health conditions can also help reduce the risk of infection.

FAQs about Wisdom Teeth Extraction

Can I avoid getting my wisdom teeth extracted?

Sometimes, if your wisdom teeth are healthy, fully erupted, and properly aligned, you may not need to have them extracted. However, most people will require extraction due to common issues like impaction, crowding, or infection.

How long does the recovery period typically last?

Recovery time can vary, but most people expect to resume normal activities within a few days to a week. Complete healing may take several weeks, and your dentist will provide specific guidelines for your recovery.

Is wisdom teeth extraction painful?

The procedure is performed under anesthesia, so you shouldn’t feel pain. However, post-operative pain and discomfort are joint and can be managed with pain medications prescribed by your dentist.

Are there any alternatives to wisdom teeth extraction?

Sometimes, your dentist may recommend alternatives such as monitoring the wisdom teeth, but extraction is often the most effective way to prevent future dental problems. In rare cases, if the wisdom teeth are correctly aligned and not causing any issues, they may not need to be extracted. However, it is essential to regularly monitor them for any potential problems that may arise in the future.

Can I drive myself home after the procedure?

It’s advisable to arrange for someone to drive you home after the extraction, especially if you received general anesthesia. Driving under the influence of anesthesia is unsafe.

When should I contact my dentist after the extraction?

If you experience severe pain, excessive bleeding, signs of infection, or any unusual symptoms, contact your dentist promptly for guidance. It is essential to remember that some discomfort and swelling are normal after an extraction. However, if these symptoms worsen over a few days, you should contact your dentist for further evaluation.


Wisdom teeth extraction is a standard procedure to prevent oral health problems caused by these third molars. While wisdom teeth extraction carries risks, proper preparation, post-operative care, and communication with your dental healthcare provider can help ensure a smooth and successful recovery. If you’re considering wisdom teeth extraction, consult your dentist to discuss your needs and concerns. Your dentist can assess your oral health and determine if wisdom teeth extraction is necessary. They can also provide information on the procedure, including what to expect before, during, and after the surgery. Communicating openly with your dentist to address any questions or concerns about the extraction process is essential.